Beddru Flemming has already admitted his mistake on this one. It may be a corruption or variation of the name "Buddha" therefore perhaps Chinese or Indian in origin but that is just speculation. In an interview for the "Rational Response Squad" Flemming admits he should not have included this one: It's in a background graphic
Prehistoric literacy[ edit ] Origins of literacy[ edit ] Literacy is emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8, BCE. Script developed independently at least five times in human history MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indus civilizationlowland Mesoamericaand China.
During this era, literacy was "a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted.
The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite.
These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. Indus script is largely pictorial and has not been deciphered yet. It may or may not include abstract signs.
It is thought that they wrote from right to left and that the script is thought to be logographic. Because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system; however, it is genuinely thought to be an independent writing system that emerged in the Harappa culture.
Origins of the alphabet[ edit ] According to social anthropologist Jack Goodythere are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet.
Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelbcredit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system c. But Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia".
Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petriewho, incame across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem.
Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
InWilliam F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to Goody's findings. This included a series of inscriptions from Ugaritdiscovered in by French archaeologist Claude F. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts written in an early Canaanite dialect that consisted of a letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet.
Another significant discovery was made in when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE.AFAM Intro to African American Studies This course provides an overview of African American history and culture.
Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA.
UNIT OVERVIEW. Donald G. Donn, Corkran Middle School, Maryland, USA This unit was created during my first year as a teacher many years ago! Nibiru, also known as the Twelfth Planet, Planet X or "Planet of the Crossing" is represented in ancient history by a cross and a winged yunusemremert.com is described by some as supposedly the twelfth member in the solar system’s family of planets which includes the 10 planets, the sun, and the moon.
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11 The origin of language is the origin of god by Yoseph Lanyadoo. When God, the head light entity among other light entities created matter from light and thought, followed it by DNA language and wrote complex programs that created life he became God.
This compilation is dedicated to the memory of our nameless forebears, who were the inventors of the pens and inks, paper and incunabula, glyphs and alphabets.